1. A Large amount of calcium is needed in the diet when protein consumption is high. Excessive protein intake increases urinary loss of calcium and bone reabsorption.
2.Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency, especially in women. Up to 80%, active female athletes are iron deficiency, which could negatively affect exercise performance, impair immune function, and decrease energy levels.
3. Vitamin C enhances the absorption of iron. To have an effect, vitamin C rich foods (citrus fruits leafy vegetables, tomatoes, strawberries, potatoes) must be eaten at the same meal as the iron source.
4. Magnesium has an important role in at least 300 enzymatic reactions including energy production, fat and protein synthesis, and muscle relaxation, neuromuscular transmission, and activity. Magnesium supplementation may help enhance strength gains during training.
5. Zinc, as a trace element, is required as a cofactor (helps in enzyme activity) by more than 100 enzymes. Zinc helps make parts of the genetic materials DNA and RNA, manufacture heme (site of oxygen binding in the blood) for hemoglobin, participate in essential fatty acid metabolism, release in form liver storage, synthesize protein, metabolize carbohydrates and alcohol in the liver, dispose of damaging free radicals.
6. Low potassium can cause muscle cramping and cardiovascular irregularities. Athletes need more potassium to replace that lost from muscle during exercise. Shoot for at least 3,500 mg/day from food and supplements.
7. Improper cooking can destroy many important vitamin C, thiamin, and folic acid. Use fresh or frozen vegetables instead of canned and for best vitamin retention try one of these methods: cook quickly in a minimum of water and cover, steam vegetable in a steamer, stir-fry or microwave.
8. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant by helping to protect the lungs against air pollutants, especially when a person is breathing hard during exercise.
9. Sunlight forms Vitamin D in the skin. Although most people can manufacture enough Vitamin D in the Summer to last them through the winter, more and people avoid exposure to the sun (with good reason) for fear of premature aging or developing skin cancer. So fortified foods and vitamin-D containing supplements are an important source.
10. Plants do not contain vitamin B12(cyanocobalamin), so strict vegetarian should incorporate B12 fortified soy milk in their diet or take the supplement. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians can include dairy products and egg. The daily value for adult is 6.0 mcg